“一种植物如果在某个特定地区自然生长,就被认为是本地的, 生态系统, or habitat without human introduction.”
National Wildlife Federation

Native plants have co-evolved with the other plants, 动物, 真菌, and bacteria as well as the climate, 特定生境和地区的光照和土壤条件, 从而在保持特定生态系统稳定方面发挥着重要作用.


Why are native plants important?


“本土植物是健康生态系统的必要心脏. Plants power the food web for the rest of life on earth. 在这个网络, it is the balance of co-evolutionary relationships that allows millions of different species to all live closely together within a shared place. 在当地生态系统中, only the plants that have evolved over an extended period of time with the other flora and fauna present can successfully feed the entire web and keep it stable.”
— Grow Native Massachusetts

本地植物提供重要的生态系统功能和服务. 它们养活着各种各样的昆虫和其他野生动物. 本地植物对特殊物种特别有价值. Over 90% of plant-eating 动物 are specialists. Specialists are the opposite of generalist species, 因为它们需要适应特定的环境, and usually a specific diet, which often is limited to very few foods. Often specialist species feed on certain native plants, 这是由于数千年来形成的共生关系. 包括本土植物在内的栖息地多样性对这些物种的生存至关重要.

A classic example of a relationship between a specialist species and a native plant is with monarch butterflies and native milkweeds. 黑脉金斑蝶幼虫只吃马利筋植物的叶子. 通过乳草植物栖息地保护和种植, people can help sustain monarch populations.



Native plant communities additionally provide ecological support to fruit and vegetable growers by increasing the number and diversity of beneficial insects and pollinators. Many native plant species are found to be especially productive in providing habitat for pollinators and for beneficial insects that suppress crop pests. 乡土植物可能很美,但它们的好处远远超出美学.

Beneficial insects include, 但并不局限于, 士兵甲虫, 掠夺性的黄蜂, 寄蝇蝇, and an assortment of bees. Providing habitat in close proximity to vegetable crop production can have an impact on aphids, Colorado potato beetles, and other pests through predation and parasitoidism.


水资源管理 & jdb电子游戏爆分视频

Plant communities have two equally important portions. The above-ground photosynthetic portion of the plant communities is the obvious one to most people. At the same time, the below ground system of roots is equally important to the community. Native plants typically have very deep root 系统. 这些根提高了它们所种植土壤中的水分渗透. 因此, 原生植物有助于管理雨水和雨水径流, and increase ground水 recharge. 原生植物的根支持共生微生物和真菌,并哺育地下生命. They help break up compacted soils, increase soil organic matter, and boost overall soil health.

The structure of roots 系统 is a very important component of how this below ground community functions. As seen in the diagram below, herbaceous broadleaf forbs (wildflowers) tend to either have a prominent taproot with some side branches or a coarsely fibrous root system. 与此形成鲜明对比的是, graminoids (including grasses and sedges) tend to have densely fibrous fine-textured roots that more thoroughly occupy the root zone. 


Can I actually make an impact by planting a few natives?

是的! You absolutely have the ability to increase valuable habitat, even in a small amount of space. 你可以将本土植物融入到你的景观美化和农场美化中. Depending on the size of the plants, and time of year they’re planted, you will likely see beneficial insects and pollinator insects visiting your flowering natives in a relatively short amount of time. You will be providing critical food and nest sources for specialist species (and generalist insects as well). 

Especially in urban spaces, individuals’ landscaping choices have a significant impact on habitat diversity and storm水 runoff mitigation. 现有的本土植物也将有助于隔离二氧化碳, and contribute to lowered temperatures in urban areas. 在你的院子里增加土著人有无数的好处, and you do not need to convert your entire space into a native prairie in order to enjoy many of these benefits.



The SWCD created a guide document to provide a recommended species list and methodology for establishing a native planting on Indiana small farms and 花园s. These species are found to be especially productive in providing habitat for pollinators and for beneficial insects that suppress crop pests.

This publication was funded through the Indiana State Department of Agriculture’s Clean Water Indiana grant program.

访问完整的指南: Native Plantings for Beneficial Insects and Pollinators (pdf).



Determine where you want to incorporate native plants. Site conditions will guide the plants you choose. The Marion County SWCD has developed a native plant list to target beneficial insects and pollinators and includes plants that are suitable to be in close proximity to vegetable 花园s.

With most native plantings, and especially if you are planting a large area, it is ideal to select 70%–80% forbs (wildflowers) and 20%–30% graminoids (grass and sedges). Choose a diversity of plants with different bloom periods to provide continuous flowering throughout the year.

Recommended Species List: 

地位:  Short: <24″     Medium: 24 – 48″     Large: > 48”

O 'C的间距  On-center spacing indicates the spacing between plants. When two plants with different spacing are adjacent, use the larger of the two between them.

场地带(FS)适合在靠近农作物的地方种植的植物, such as beds or strips within the growing area. These plants are non-flopping, cast little shade, and can tolerate full sun and hot conditions.

场边界(神奇动物)  Plants suited for perimeter and pocket plantings.

艰难的(T)  在贫瘠的土壤和炎热的条件下表现出弹性的植物.

Native plant species list



Cross-reference the SWCD plant list with additional lists to better determine plant suitability on your farm, 花园, 或景观, such as moisture and sunlight requirements. A couple of guide documents we especially recommend: 


Option A: Mechanical (lawns)

  1. 用割草机或手动工具清除草皮顶部的一英寸. The top inch contains the majority of weed seeds.
  2. 去除任何剩余的多年生主根,如蒲公英.
  3. 用报纸和硬木粉覆盖,如果用插头种植.
  4. Seed and straw if planting by seed.

Tilling sod is not recommended as rhizomatous grasses may regrow, especially if the soil is moist.  耕作促进每年杂草种子库的萌发.


  1. 利用掩蔽或黑色青贮油布消除植被.
  2. 用纸板/报纸和硬木粉覆盖,如果用插头种植.
  3. Seed and straw if planting by seed.





  • April 10 through May is optimal time
  • 九月初是一个好地方——温暖的土壤和可能下雨的地方
  • 霜冻隆起可能是一个问题,如果种植在9月21日之后


  • Create a hole the depth of the plug (auger / trowel)
  • 植物顶部的土壤堵塞水平与周围的土壤.
  • Backfill and firm the soil around the plug. Water thoroughly to settle the soil around the plug.
  • Apply 1-2 inches of an organic mulch such as leaf compost or finely shredded hardwood mulch. Mulching can be done before or after transplanting.
  • 锥度覆盖到接近植物茎部,以防止冠腐.
  • 如果土壤是干燥的,在前六周每周施用一英寸的水. 一旦建立,水只在极端干燥的时期. 如果植物在清晨枯萎,就需要额外的水.


  • 利用一个jdb电子游戏的爆分技巧中心间距的图表,这是植物之间的推荐间距. When two plants with different spacing are adjacent, use the larger of the two between them. A good resource to calculate plant spacing options is through the Midwest Ground Covers’ 植物的计算器
  • 普通间距为12英寸的小型植物,18英寸的中型植物,24英寸的大型植物.
  • 在种植前做好植物布局是很有帮助的.
  • 一个建议是把同一物种的植物归在一起.
  • Interspersed grasses increase weed suppression.


Option B: Installation of native planting via seeds

(For larger blocks where plugs may be cost-prohibitive. Not recommended for in-field strips. Plan on 3 to 5 years for full establishment via seeds.)


  • Seeds may be broadcast during the dormant season
    • December 1 – February 28
  • Or in the spring planting window
    • 4月1日至6月15日
  • 许多本地物种需要潮湿和冰冻才能裂开. 休眠种子有助于这些物种更快地生长. 在理想的情况下, time seeding prior to a snow or when temperature fluctuations are going to cause the ground to freeze and thaw.
  • If seeding in the spring, culti-packing rough soil before broadcasting the seed often prevents seed from being planted too deep.


  • 从信誉良好的本地种子供应商订购适当数量的种子. Plan on at least 40 – 60 seeds per square foot.
  • Plant seed no deeper than the width of the seed.
  • Mix the seed with a sterile potting mix or other dry inert material with a ratio of one part seed to 3 parts inert material.
  • Divide the seed mix in half. Spread half the seed over the entire area. Then spread the remaining half over the entire area. 这确保了在覆盖整个区域之前不会耗尽种子.
  • Lightly mulch the seeding with straw so approximately half of the soil is visible through the straw.
  • 前8周保持苗床湿润以保证发芽.

During the first couple of years, 大多数草原草和野花的地上生长有限. 在这段时间里,植物需要消耗大量的能量才能长到深而广的根部 系统. 


Monitor for and remove cool-season weeds such as assorted mustards, annual brome species (叶片spp), 草木犀属 (Melilotus spp), 和加拿大蓟 (Cirsium arvense). 更新边缘和任何裸露土壤的重要区域的覆盖物. Shredded hardwood (2” or less) should be added every two years and composted leaves may be added annually as a soil conditioner.



监测并清除暖季杂草,如豚草 特别美味的食物(spp), (苋属spp), 狐尾草 (Setaria spp), and other typical annuals. 也监测侵略性的根茎多年生植物,如加拿大一枝黄花 (加拿大一枝黄花), 约翰逊草 (Sorgham halepense), 和平滑布罗姆 (叶片).



Remove or treat unwanted woody plant recruitment. 在种子播散之前,清除每年剩余的杂草. 秋叶可以用割草机剪碎,撒在种植区域.


在冬末, cut the planting down to 4 inches in height and remove the prior year’s herbaceous growth.

栓子形成得更快,因此更容易控制杂草. 有了插头,人们就可以在特定的地方布置物种.

  • Wholesale minimums can be $600, and each plug is ~ $1.80
  • 零售可能没有最低价格,每个工厂(大小不同)是4到10美元
  • Native plugs can be found locally from various sources (typically during limited date spring and fall sales). Find a source through the 成长印第安纳土著 网站.


种子是便宜的. 植物通常较密,生长一般较慢.

  • Cost: Individual seed packets versus pre-made mixes

Plugs: Wholesale Example


  • 500 sq. ft.
  • 0.62 x 5 = 3.1立方码


  • 3 Cubic Yards times $37.50 /码= 112美元.50
  • Delivery estimate:  $40 – $60

Sourcing: Tiffanys (AAA), McCarty’s, Greencycle

Top 10 Indiana 本地植物

Every native plant has its values. There are SO many to choose from, and it can be overwhelming to select which ones to plant.
Here are some of our favorites.


Asters (New England, Short’s, Smooth Blue)
Black eyed susans (Sweet, Showy)
Blazing stars (Prairie, Meadow, Dense, Marsh)
Coneflowers (Purple, Pale Purple, Yellow)*
Goldenrods (Stiff, Riddell’s)
Mountain mints (Virginia, Narrow Leaf)
Milkweeds (Common, Whorled, Swamp, Butterflyweed)*

* 选择印第安纳州本地品种而不是栽培品种很重要. 

Don’t forget the graminoids (grasses)!

Burr sedge and many other sedges 


资源 & 链接